Of Bread and Wine
The situation of our region, lying near unto the north, doth cause the heat of our stomachs to be of somewhat greater force:
therefore our bodies do crave a little more ample nourishment than the inhabitants of the hotter regions are accustomed withal,
whose digestive force is not altogether so vehement, because their internal heat is not so strong as ours, which is kept in by
the coldness of the air that from time to time (especially in winter) doth environ our bodies.
These qualities of bread were commonly baked at Ingatestone Hall in the 1550s.
The gentle folk commonly eat wheat bread. Their poorer neighbors often use only rye or barley. In very hard times, beans, peas and (shudder) oats may be used.
Most wines are sweet and rather heavy. They probably have to be strained before you want to drink them, and may still have solid matter floating in them.
Sugar and spices ("cinnamon and ginger, nutmeg and clove") are often added to wine and even to beer.
Rhenish is a German wine, and very strong.
Claret comes from Gascony (southern France).
Canary is a white wine from the Canary Islands.
Sack comes from Spain. Sack is popularly sweetened with sugar.
Beer in England is usually ale, made without hops, and is relatively flat. It can be flavored with just about anything, including pepper, ivy, rosemary, and lupins.
Measuring it out
A tun is equal to:
A puncheon equals 84 gallons.
A runlet is various smaller amounts.
25 March 2008 mps