Staffing a Great Household
Anthony Viscount Montague, 1595
from A Book of Orders and Rules, edited from the original
ms. by Sir Sibbald David Scott, Bart., in
Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. vii, London 1854.
"A Book of Orders and Rules, established by me Anthony
Viscount Montague for the better direction and gouvernment
of my household and family..."
|1. Steward of the Household|| 21. Clerk of the Officer's Chambers|
|2. Comptroller || 22. Yeoman of the Horse|
|3. High steward of the Courts || 23. Yeoman of the Cellar|
|4. Auditor || 24. Yeoman of the Ewery|
|5. General Receiver|| 25. Yeoman of the Pantry|
|6. Solicitor || 26. Yeoman of the Buttery|
|7. Other principal officers || 27. Yeoman of the Wardrobe|
|8. Secretary || 28. Yeoman waiters|
|9. Gentlemen Ushers || 29. Second cook, and the rest|
|10. Carver || 30. Porter|
|11. Sewer (server) || 31. Granator|
|12. Gentlemen of the Chamber || 32. Bailiff|
|13. Gentlemen of Horse || 33. Baker|
|14. Gentlemen waiters || 34. Brewer|
|15. Marshall of the Hall || 35. Grooms of the Great Chamber|
|16. Clerk of the Kitchen || 36. Almoner|
|17. Yeomen of the Great Chamber || 37. Scullery man|
|18. Usher of the Hall |
|19. Chief cook |
|20. Yeomen of the chamber |
Read the complete text of Anthony Maria Browne's Book of Orders and Rules at Managing a Noble Household: A Book of Orders and Rules, 1595.
An Ambassadorial Household: 1604
In 1604 the Earl of Hertford's embassy to Brussels included:
20 Knights, 2 barons, and 7 gentlemen, plus their servants
to a total of 90.
And in the earl's personal train:
|2 chaplains || 1 surgeon || 6 pages|
|1 steward || 1 physician || 3 wardrobers|
|1 secretary || 1 apothecary || 16 gentlemen waiters|
|1 gentleman of the horse || 8 musicians || 30 yeoman waiters |
|2 gentlemen ushers || 8 trumpeters || 30 kitchen, buttery, & pantry staff |
| 1 harbinger || 6 footmen || 4 gentlemen of the chamber|
|1 master of carriages || 10 lackeys |
Some fines and rules in Sir John Harington's house
- A servant must not be absent from morning or
evening meals or prayers lest he be fined 2 pence for each time.
- Any servant late to dinner would be fined 2 pence.
- Any man waiting table without a trencher in his
hand, except for good excuse, would be fined 1 penny.
- For each oath, a servant would be
fined a penny.
- Any man provoking another to strike,
or striking another, would be liable to dismissal.
- For a dirty shirt on Sunday or a missing
button, the fine would be sixpence.
- After 8:00 am no bed must be found unmade
and no fireplace or candle box left uncleaned, or
the fine would be one penny.
- The hall must be cleaned in an hour.
- Any man leaving a door open that he found shut
would be fined one penny unless he could show good cause.
- The whole house must be swept and dusted each Friday.
Dinner at Cowdray House
Masters & Servants
The Steward and His Office
The Steward in Matters Domestical
Paying the Servants
Plan of Ingatestone Hall, a Country House of the
Latter Sixteenth Century
8 August 2008 pkm